Although there are several theories about the origins of the signature Portuguese guitar, many experts support that it has Arabic roots. In fact, we can find common features between Moorish music and the traditional Portuguese folk genre, fado.
The Moors brought their guitars to the neighboring nation of Spain, so it’s not a stretch that Portuguese music was also influenced.
Others, however, such as compositors Pedro Caldeira Cabral and António Portugal, conducted studies that seem to indicate that the Portuguese guitar is likely the outcome of a fusion between two different stringed instruments, the European cittern and the English guitar.
The European cittern is a Renaissance instrument with a shape that is very similar to that of the Portuguese guitar. Many citterns and Portuguese guitars also share the same number of strings and the tunings.
The cittern was probably brought to Portugal by the Italian or French during the 16th century. When it comes to the English guitar, the instrument was introduced in Portugal in the 18th century.
The different body structures and tunings found in the European cittern and the English guitar might start to explain why the typical guitars of the Portuguese cities of Coimbra and Lisbon have some relevant differences.
It could have been a case of which of the two foreign guitars impacted each of the Portuguese models the most. Independently of which origin story is closest to the real events, the fact is that the present-day Portuguese guitar, with all of its variations, is an instrument that evolved and transformed into something unique in the world, used for an equally unique genre of music.
By browsing our blog New Music Fridays, you have come to understand that the history that led to the development of acoustic and electric guitars as we know them today is rich, significant, impressive and international.
It is truly mind-blowing to think that the string instruments that were played even before the common era evolved constantly across centuries, generations and nations. But what are the absolute staples of our contemporary guitar collection? Two inventions simply cannot be forgotten.
The Gibson L-5
The Gibson L-5 was first released in 1923 and, to this day, it is known in the music world as the first masterpiece. Icons like Maybelle Carter, West Montgomery, Eric Clapton and John Mayer have played the Gibson L-5.
The Maybelle Carter’s L-5 is currently on display at the Nashville’s Country Music Hall of Fame.
The model was designed to be played in orchestra music and was the first guitar with 14 frets on its neck and a truss rod that could be adjusted. Crafted first as an acoustic instrument, electric variations of the Gibson L-5 started being produced during the 1950s, the era of the advent of the first Fender and Gibson electric guitars.
By that time, the Gibson L-5 was considered the ultimate best rhythm guitar to be played in big band music.
The Fender Telecaster
The Fender Telecaster, known first as the Esquire or Broadcaster was the very first electric guitar in history to fulfil all the criteria in order to be unanimously called such. The instrument was released by Fender in 1950.
Almost every successful musician who plays the guitar has achieved the dream of playing one of these gems.
The Telecaster was produced on a mass scale and was meant to be simple, classic and pure. The solid body guitar is easy to play and stripped-down. The amazing quality in sound immediately raised the expectations of all enthusiasts about anything else Fender would produce afterwards.
Luckily for the company, the standards that were set right from the beginning have been met time and time again.
Other absolutely iconic and groundbreaking guitars that shook the music landscape as soon as they were released are the 1933 Martin D-45, the 1952 Gibson Les Paul, the 1954 Fender Stratocaster and the 1958 Gibson Flying V.
In this article we take a look at the fascinating tales behind four incredibly expensive historic guitars.
This Fender Stratocaster is the most expensive guitar ever in recorded history. It was sold in 2005 for a whopping 2.7 million dollars at an auction with the goal of raising money for Reach Out to Asia.
This was a non-profit entity specifically created to aid the victims of the 2005 tsunami that devastated various countries in Asia.
The person who claimed it not only helped the cause immensely but also took home one of the most epic instruments in history. Why? The Fender Stratocaster was signed by Eric Clapton, Mick Jagger, Keith Richards, Paul McCartney, Jeff Beck and Bryan Adams. Wow!
Gibson J-160E – John Lennon
This Gibson is undoubtedly one of the most relevant musical instruments in history. The circumstances surrounding the selling are quite curious. This was an acoustic guitar that Lennon had lost long before the year it was sold.
He used it to record tracks in the “Please, Please Me” and “With the Beatles” albums. In 2015, after being reported as missing for over 40 years, someone bought the Gibson J-160E for 2.4 million dollars at a live auction.
1968 Fender Stratocaster – Jimi Hendrix
Who doesn’t know about the absolutely legendary Jimi Hendrix performance at the 1969 Woodstock Festival? Well, this Fender Stratocaster was used in the set and is said to be one of Hendrix’s all-time favorite guitars.
Although the details of the selling are covered by a bit of secrecy, the guitar was reportedly bought by Paul Allen, co-founder of Microsoft, for an unbelievable 2 million dollars.
Doug Irwin Tiger – Jerry Garcia
Known as “tiger”, this was Garcia’s main guitar during the 80s. The name comes from the fact that there was a tiger inlaid on the preamp cover on top. Business executive Brian Halligan acquired it for 1.9 million dollars during an auction organized to benefit the cause of the Southern Poverty Law Center.
History is filled with instances when, with only the touch of a finger, iconic guitarists astronomically increase the value of their instruments.
You surely know that what mainly constitutes an electric guitar is the connection to an amplifier, without which the sound is practically non-existent.
To put it simply, the first electric guitars stemmed from the need to play the guitar loudly either because of big crowds or to make sure its sound would not be muted by all the other instruments in a band.
Leo Fender and Les Paul
Although other designs were crafted earlier, the first actual electric guitars date back to the late 1940s. Leo Fender modelled a solid body guitar with one pickup. And around that exact time, the musician and craftsman Les Paul was experimenting with concepts for a guitar of the same type.
His creation would go on to be known as the log since it was made out of a block of wood with a neck attached.
The first popular electric prototype came out in 1950 under the name Esquire and the company Fender. At the beginning of the 1950s, the Esquire was renamed to Telecaster, which is still how we know it today.
The solid body Telecaster became the very first electric guitar to be mass produced.
The company took advantage of the momentum. In the same year, Fender released a bass guitar called The Precision Bass. During the 1950s, almost all musicians had easily available alternatives to the acoustic guitars and basses.
The Gibson Les Paul
But don’t think that Les Paul stepped out of the music scene after Fender apparently surpassed him.
Just one year later, in 1952, Paul got the endorsement of the Gibson Corporation to produce the company’s first solid body electric guitars, which actually looked nowhere near similar to Les Paul’s signature log guitar.
Icons like Jimmy Page, Joe Perry and Slash defend the Gibson Les Paul guitars with their honor.
Just like in a USA versus URSS space race, Fender revolutionized the sector yet again in 1954 with the Stratocaster, an instrument beloved by heroes such as Jimi Hendrix and Eric Clapton.
The Telecaster, the Gibson Les Paul and the Stratocaster are arguably the inspirations for all electric guitars crafted ever since.
Gibson’s robot guitars
Fast forward half a century to 2007, Gibson introduced the groundbreaking Robot Guitar. The electric now has the potential to be electronic. This design has tuning machines on the pegs that allow for tuning within seconds.
Soon after that, Gibson upgraded the robot concept with the Dark Fire, with even smaller and faster tuning equipment, as well as features to play either acoustic or electric.
Nowadays, electric guitars can produce several sound effects and be manipulated with pedals and synths.
Ancient guitars may have developed in different regions at the same time. In fact, the Greeks, the Persians and the Indians all had a name to define the stringed instrument.
When those inventions were brought to Europe, languages like Spanish, Italian, Portuguese and French introduced words in their lexis to refer to the guitar. To this day, all those languages, including English, preserve a similar sonority.
The acoustic guitar in Europe
Merchants from all over the world brought ancient guitars to Europe. The instruments were depicted in paintings and talked about in manuscripts. The earliest instrument that most experts seem to agree to describe as an actual guitar is the Spanish chitarra.
Chitarra music started being composed in the country by the 16th century. The instrument had four courses of adjacent strings.
The Baroque period introduced a guitar that was significantly easier to tune and to play. By this time, guitar music was already very popular across several countries in Europe. A multitude of models was crafted and countless guitar compositions were created.
Then, in the later years of the 18th century, Spain came up with yet another groundbreaking advancement in guitars. The new six-stringed instrument was called vihuela and was very similar to the modern guitar.
The contemporary acoustic guitar
When compared to today’s acoustic guitars, the only relevant differences in the stringed instruments of the 19th century were the smaller size and waist.
That was up until the Spanish musician Antonio de Torres Jurado designed the first contemporary acoustic guitar with the size, proportions and richness of sound we are accustomed to today.
By means of European immigrants, Torres’ creation made it to the USA, where players started using steel strings. To handle the added pressure of the steel, Christian Frederick Martin developed a flat top, X-braced acoustic guitar in the 1830s.
This model was perfectly suited for more vigorous strumming. That was when the classical style of playing began to be replaced.
Years later, the archtop guitar became a sensation among rock, jazz and country musicians because of its louder and energetic sound.
Both of these contemporary designs stood the test of time and are still impressively relevant in music, even with the advent of the fabulous electric guitar.
The guitar is the ultimate musical instrument of our time. It revolutionized the most varied genres during the 20th century. The evolution of what we know as a guitar has stemmed from ancient stringed instruments. Medieval Spain was where the modern guitar started to gain shape.
The history of string instruments goes back to Mesopotamia and Babylon. The word guitar comes from the Greek term kithara. Most experts agree that the two instruments that contributed the most to the development of the modern guitar were the lute and the oud.
The lute was an instrument with a lot of different sizes and shapes. Essentially, it had a curved back and up to five courses. Its origin dates back to the Egyptians. Throughout the centuries, it passed to other civilizations and ended up being introduced in Europe.
The European lute was the version closest to the present-day guitar.
This was an Arabic instrument that the Moors brought to Spain by the time of their invasion. Soon, the Moors noticed that the oud shared common features with European ancient instruments.
The oud had a rounded body, a small neck and no frets. The mark that the instrument and the style of playing it left in Spain was arguably the starting point for modern Western guitar playing.
The next centuries
By the Renaissance, the European lute had evolved and had up to 30 strings. It eventually lost its momentum and was replaced by the Baroque guitar, an advancement that was easier to play and to tune.
In Spain, instruments with frets and shapes that resembled those of the modern guitar started appearing during the 15th century. With time, a curved instrument with a hole in the body in front of which the strings were strummed was developed in the country.
The creation was called vihuela and is one of the closest cousins of the guitar. By the end of the 18th century, vihuelas with six strings finally kicked off the fast evolution from classical to modern guitars.
The first ever modern guitar
By the beginning of the 19th century, guitars were already extremely similar to the ones we play today. However, they were significantly smaller in size. It was Antonio de Torres Jurado, a Spanish Musician, who in the middle of the 1800s started designing and creating the guitar that would come to originate all the other modern guitars in history.
Finally, all the features were lining up, since this time around guitars got bigger in size.
The body was broadened, the curve was increased, the belly was thinned and the wood in the tuning pegs was replaced by machine heads. This new design gave Torres Jurado’s guitar a rich, articulate and resounding tone.
You certainly know this description all too well. That is because this was the very first modern guitar in music history.
Another Spanish musician, Andres Segovia, introduced the new guitar in live concerts and created the compositions which sound we now define as classical guitar music.
European immigrants took the modern guitar to America, and the rest is the astounding history of acoustic and electric guitars.
Follow New Music Fridays as we will continue the history with those two.
Leo Fender and Les Paul rightfully deserve all the credit for the proliferation of the modern electric guitar in the second half of the 20th century. But in fact according to guitarfella.com, two other men should be credited for the actual invention of the electric guitar.
In 1890, a naval officer named George Breed submitted a patent for a new instrument that utilized wire strings and a magnetic pickup. Even though it was small, this guitar design required some complicated circuitry and battery operation that made it very heavy.
George Beauchamp enters the story a few decades later. His new guitar design worked impeccably. It was known as the frying pan Hawaiian guitar.
The need for an electric guitar stemmed from the fact that the instruments used to play jazz and Hawaiian music in the 1920s were totally muting the sound of the acoustic guitar.
The Frying Pan
Beauchamp came to develop his frying pan-like guitar after studying Breed’s ideas with his partner Paul Barth. After building the pickup, they called another craftsman to build the wooden neck and body.
The first electric guitar in history was born, known now as the 1931 frying pan.
The team behind it was able to collaborate with people who helped them mass produce the frying pan under the name Rickenbacker A-22. Even despite the great depression, a new version with an aluminum body was developed.
Soon enough, the frying pan was being played in live jazz shows and recordings. Its momentum stretched into the early 50s up until the iconic Les Paul’s model came to be created and shake up the music world.
History has produced hundreds of incredibly gifted guitarists. Here are the thoughts of three of them to keep you inspired.
The legendary guitarist Jimi Hendrix once said that music is always true, it doesn’t lie. Any change that needs to happen in the world is possible through the power of music.
It’s only fitting that Hendrix talked about the truth in music. Even though he was not one of the most technically skilled guitarists, he was one of the most truthful and natural. That is why he is known as one of the best musicians to ever walk this earth.
He was the personification of his music, not just an artist playing. And as with any human, Hendrix was flawed and layered. So, his music couldn’t have been technically faultless. Creatively, though, it definitely was.
The iconic member of The Rolling Stones said that music is an absolute basic necessity. For him, it was so essential that it was only behind nourishment, air and warmth.
This urge to feeling the music as an ultimate condition for living is truly reflected in Richards’ work. He created some of the best melodies and lyrics in history. He was never afraid to innovate, which is a huge factor to the longevity and success of his band.
It’s no wonder that people are willing to pay a lot to see Richards, either solo or with the Stones. When he plays, he is fulfilling the crowd’s need for music.
The revered musician thinks he has some share of the responsibility to keep music alive and thriving. He wants to preserve the tradition of the blues and feels like that is an immensely honorable task to carry on his shoulders.
With his simplicity and honesty, Clapton revolutionized music and become one of the most influential figures in rock. He achieves the remarkable feat of writing and producing music that is always both innovative and rooted in tradition.
All three of these legends defined what it is to grab a guitar and create magic.